category: Research

Microbial transport and soil integrity in drylands

Dryland soils are particularly vulnerable to erosion because of low plant cover and low organic matter which is linked with water availability and biological constraints. It is increasingly recognised that dryland soils can be managed to minimise erosion, which has benefits such as increasing soil fertility, carbon storage, and prevention …

Bacterial 16S diversity of basal ice, sediment, and the forefront of Svínafellsjökull glacier via isolation chips and classical culturing techniques

Sub-glacial microbes are receiving increased attention due to their central roles in storage and release of greenhouse gases, such as methane and CO2. Climate change driven warming and resulting glacier retreat exposes bedrock that can contribute to soil formation in which subglacial-released microorganisms may play a crucial role. Basal ice, …

Arbuscular mycorrhizal community structure on co-existing tropical legume trees in French Guiana

We aimed to characterise the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community structure and potential edaphic determinants in the dominating, but poorly described, root-colonizing Paris-type AMF community on co-occurring Amazonian leguminous trees. Three highly productive leguminous trees (Dicorynia guianensis, Eperua falcata and Tachigali melinonii were targeted) in species-rich forests on contrasting soil …

Sampling and Describing Glacier Ice

Determination of the physical, chemical and biological properties of glacier ice is essential for many aspects of glaciology and glacial geomorphology. In this chapter, we draw principally on examples of the description and sampling of the basal zone of glaciers where the ice is in direct contact with its substrate, …

Pastoralism and soil quality in the Kalahari

Land use change in the rangelands of Botswana is affecting soil properties. Pastoralism is the only viable livelihood for many rural poor in Botswana, and privatization of communal land is reducing the area of grazing available to those without land tenure. This has elevated stocking densities in communal areas, increasing …

Bacterial and fungal representation and interactions in a former degraded upland peatland vegetation mosaic undergoing restoration

Peatlands are under threat from land management, anthropogenic pollution and climate change. These factors are implicated in severe degradation of ombrotrophic peatlands in the Southern Pennines of northern England. Significant areas of unconsolidated bare peat are both highly vulnerable to peat erosion and resistant to natural re-vegetation. Restoration efforts during …

Bacterial and fungal communities in a degraded ombrotrophic peatland undergoing natural and managed re-vegetation

The UK hosts 15-19% of global upland ombrotrophic (rain fed) peatlands that are estimated to store 3.2 billion tonnes of carbon and represent a critical upland habitat with regard to biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. Net production is dependent on an imbalance between growth of peat-forming Sphagnum mosses and microbial …